|PEACE||Our principle is, and our practices have always been, to seek peace, and ensue it, and to follow after righteousness and the knowledge of God, seeking the good and welfare, and doing that which tends to the peace of all. All bloody principles and practices we do utterly deny, with all outward wars, and strife, and fightings with outward weapons, for any end, or under any pretence whatsoever, and this is our testimony to the whole world. ...|
From Declaration to Charles II, 1660
The Peace Testimony is probably the best known and best loved of all the Quaker testimonies.... (It) has been a source of inspiration to Friends throughout the centuries, for it points to a way of life which embraces all human relationships.
In 1693 William Penn (the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania) wrote: "A good end cannot sanctify evil means; nor must we ever do evil, that good may come of it... It is as great presumption to send our passions upon God's errands, as it it to palliate them with God's name.... We are too ready to retaliate, rather than forgive, or gain by love and information. And yet we could hurt no man that we believe loves us. Let us then try what Love will do: for if men did once see we love them, we should soon find they would not harm us. Force may subdue, but Love gains: and he that forgives first, wins the laurel."
[From Quaker Faith & Practice 3rd Edition, Chapter 24]
No Man's Land
1. Well, how'd you do, Private William Mcbride?
2. And did you leave a wife or a sweetheart behind?
3. The sun's shining down on these green fields of France;
4. And I can't help but wonder, now Willie Mcbride,
Copyright Eric Bogle
A sanitised version of that, omitting some of the more uncomfortable anti-war sentiments, was adopted by the Royal Brtish Legion as the 2014 poppy appeal song.
Do we have to continue to tolerate the killing of innocent civilians, or war itself, as a means of settling disputes? War has been illegal since 1929. As it says in Wikipedia "The 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact was concluded outside the League of Nations, and remains a binding treaty under international law".
(The Kellogg-Briand Pact or The Pact of Paris)
The High Contracting Parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another
The High Contracting Parties agree that the settlement or solutions of all disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be sought except by pacific means.
The Treaty formed part of the legal basis for the prosecution at the Nuremberg War Crimes trial and led to Principle VI of the Nuremberg Principles, which describes as punishable war crimes a) wars of aggression; b) the ill-treatment of civilians in occupied territory and the wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages; and c) crimes against humanity including inhumane acts done against any civilian population.
White Feathers & White Poppies – the duality of man(kind)
The Great War may be now outside of living memory, but it is still part of our inherited memory and collective DNA. Whatever the understanding of those who lived through it, the first world war has come to symbolise all that is dreadful, pointless and impersonal in industrialised conflict. It is for this reason that the commemoration of the war is important; not as a historical event, or sepia tinted exercise in nostalgia, but as a consideration of the nature of conflict itself. Our folk recollection of it is also singularly English in perspective; from Kitchener to Blackadder and all that came in between. This means that any such consideration is personal, questioning and emotionally involved. It could be divisive and conflicting – which is perhaps how it should be.
White Feathers and White Poppies.
In considering the Great War I was struck by the links between these two symbols of the period. Both were unofficial expressions of attitudes to the war, both were instruments employed by women but addressed to men, and both used the colour white as a strong statement, but to very different ends.
The White Feather
The Order of the White Feather grew from the patriotic fervour of 1914 and was founded by writers Emma Ward and Baroness Orczy with prompting from Admiral Charles Fitzgerald. The white feather had existed as a symbol of cowardice since the 18th Century (from the days of cock fighting: if a bird refused to fight, it would turn its back on its opponent, showing its white tail feathers). Accordingly, before the introduction of conscription in 1916, the Order encouraged zealous young women to take it upon themselves to publicly present a white feather to any man of service age who was not in uniform. It was effective as an instrument of shame and there are many stories of young men (and not so young) enlisting as a direct result. It was not unknown for a recruiting officer to approach a recipient suspiciously soon after he had been presented with a white feather. ‘You come along with me lad. We’ll show ‘em you’re not a coward’ etc. It was unofficial but tolerated by the authorities who eventually had to provide badges to those in ‘reserved occupations’ to save them from being harassed. It declined after 1916 as war weariness made such gestures distasteful, and those who persisted in handing out white feathers were often given short shrift. The story is told of one recipient on a tram who coolly took the proffered feather, cleaned his pipe with it and returned it to the young woman saying. ‘Thanks. They give us plenty of tobacco in the trenches, but never any bloomin pipe cleaners’ He then hobbled off the tram, obviously wounded. Apocryphal or not the story is revealing.
The White Poppy
The white poppy was introduced in 1933 by women workers in the Co-operative movement. Like many of that generation they had lost sons, husbands, brothers in the Great War.
They strongly felt that the national expression of grief and reflection on Armistice day had become a largely militarized solemnification on Remembrance Sunday – that the feeling of ‘never again’ was being gradually forgotten and old attitudes to conflict were re-asserting themselves. They saw the officially sanctioned red poppy as now inextricably linked with this and wanted an alternative voice and symbol.
In 1936 the Peace Pledge Union took on the sale and production of white poppies and in 1938 over 36,000 were sold. They continue today, despite opposition from some in the British Legion, the Daily Mail and elsewhere. Margaret Thatcher made public her ‘deep distaste’ for them and recently a boy scout was ordered to remove his white poppy as it was ‘not an appropriate symbol for Remembrance day’, which rather misses the point…
15 May 2014 was International Conscientious Objectors' Day
- Peace Brigades International
- Peace Tax Seven
- Peace on Facebook See also the connected 'Facebook for Good' page.
- The United States Institute of Peace
- Peace Direct